The Most Common Concurrency Issues and How to Fix Them: Part 2

In the first part of the series, I showed you a simple class which has three concurrency issues. In this post, I would like to explain the first issue. By the end of the series, you will understand their basic mechanism, you will be able to identify them and I will give you a couple of advice on how to fix them.

Disclaimer: I’m not going deep down the rabbit hole (e.g.: Java Memory Model, happens-before, etc.) but I’m trying to explain the issues in a simple way. If you already know all the three different issues with the demo code below and you want to learn more, I suggest you check out the tests I wrote to demo/reproduce the issues and the Java Concurrency in Practice book.

Race Condition

A race condition is a situation where the behavior of the software depends on the sequence/timing of the execution in multi-threaded environments.

OK, but what does this mean? Let’s see an example, throughout the increment method. Incrementing a value consists of 3 steps:

  1. Reading the value from the memory
  2. Incrementing it (+1)
  3. Writing it back to the memory

On multiple threads, this could look like this:

Thread AThread BMemory

Since the increment operation is not happening in a single step but it consists of 3 steps, we need to talk a little about atomicity. Atomic operations are executed in all-or-nothing which means that other threads will not be able to see the operation in a partially-completed state. They see it as either the whole thing was executed or nothing. From their perspective, an atomic operation looks “instantaneous”, there is no in-between.

Since other threads can see the intermediate steps (it is not a single read-increment-write action but 3 separate steps), we can say that the increment operation is not atomic.

Because of this, if the sequence/timing of the execution is not fortunate, we can get a different result:

Thread AThread BMemory

As you can see, the result of the increment method is based on “luck” so we can say (not very accurately) that race condition is a situation where the behavior depends on “luck”. :)

How to spot and fix Race Conditions

First, look for shared mutability (something that is shared between threads and also can be modified). E.g.: if you see that a class has a field (static or non-static) which is modified in a method (in a non-atomic way) and the method can be invoked from multiple threads, I might have bad news. This is exactly the case with the value field in the UnsafeCounter class (see the first post).

To fix this type of issue, you can either eliminate shared mutability (by making your objects immutable or not shared) or make the operations atomic. Since usually immutability is the safest path and since “shared mutability is devil’s work” I would try to go for immutability first. I intentionally picked an example where this is not possible and we need to take the hard path (later) but please always use immutable objects wherever you can, you will make everyone’s life easier.

Second, check if you are using thread-safe components. Your component is only thread-safe if all of the components it is using are thread-safe (assuming you don’t make them atomic). Here’s an example which looks thread-safe, but it is not (please ignore other issues with this code):

public class DateService {
    private static final DateFormat DATE_FORMAT = new SimpleDateFormat("yyyy-MM-dd");

    public String getFormattedDate(long timestamp) {
        Date date = new Date(timestamp);
        return DATE_FORMAT.format(date);

SimpleDateFormat is not thread-safe so this method in this form can’t be thread-safe either. The JavaDoc warns you about it (as far as I remember, I learned this by accident during a perf test):

Date formats are not synchronized. It is recommended to create separate format instances for each thread. If multiple threads access a format concurrently, it must be synchronized externally.

Classes in the JDK which (surprisingly) are not thread-safe (I’m sure this list is way longer than this):

  • SimpleDateFormat
  • Marshaller
  • Unmarshaller

Btw, the “goto” implementations in the Collections Framework are not thread-safe (might not be very surprising though) either:

  • ArrayList, LinkedList
  • HashSet, TreeSet, LinkedHashSet
  • HashMap, TreeMap, LinkedHashMap

You can find thread-safe implementations in the Collections Framework (e.g.: ConcurrentHashMap) and the Java Time API contains a thread-safe DateTimeFormatter. Unfortunately, I don’t know any good way to fix the Marshaller and the Unmarshaller in JAXB except synchronization.

How to fix Race Conditions by making operations atomic

I think the best advice I can ever give to you is this: Try to avoid writing code.
So let me introduce you to the java.util.concurrent.atomic package which (in this case) solves the problem for you:

public class SafeCounter implements Counter {
    private final AtomicLong value = new AtomicLong();

    public long get() {
        return value.get();

    public void set(long newValue) {

    public void increment() {

But what if you can’t eliminate shared mutability, there is no existing class that could solve the problem for you and/or you can’t use a thread-safe implementation?
Please note that this should be your last resort and you need to prepare for the fight. :) Also, this is a big topic, discussing it in details could be the subject of a book. Oh, wait: Java Concurrency in Practice. :)

The simpler tool you can use is the synchronized keyword:

The more sophisticated one is called Lock:

In the next article, I would like to explain the rest of the issues as well as how to fix them using synchronized.


I created tests for the first two issues: Please feel free to clone/fork the repo and play with the code. You can modify the implementations (or add new ones) and watch if the tests are failing. Try to play with synchronized, volatile, and Locks. Understanding the tests could also be a fun exercise. :)

WARNING: Since the behavior is based on “luck”, the tests are not consistent, they can give false positives.

The UnsafeCounter and the SafeCounter classes in this post are also available in the GitHub repo: concurrency-basics.

Posts in this series